Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that causes symptoms such as headache, fever, cough, tiredness, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases jaundice, seizure, coma, and death. The disease is pervasive in tropical and subtropical areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Approximately, 95% of Malaria cases and fatalities happen in sub-Saharan Africa. Generally, the rate of the disease has decreased from 2010 to 2014, but unfortunately, increased from 2015 to 2020. Due to increased healthcare cost, loss of ability to work, and adverse impact on tourism. Malaria has a significant negative effect on the economic development of the country and is commonly associated with poverty.
Reinfection of Malaria causes milder symptoms in those who have recently survived an infection. Typically, it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of blood or antigen-based rapid tests. Victims of Malaria are mostly children under 5 years old and pregnant women. Although, fundamental efforts have been made in the several last decades to eradicate Malaria, more than 6 hundred thousand people die from Malaria every year.
Several medications are known for treating Malaria. The primary medication is a combination of antimalarial medicines such as artemisinin. The second treatment may include drugs such as mefloquine, lumefantrine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and doxycycline. As of 2020, one vaccine is available for reducing the risk of Malaria in children by up to 40%. One of the most effective methods for preventing Malaria morbidity and mortality is by using Insecticide-Treated bed Nets (ITNs). As a major intervention for controlling Malaria, ITNs repel and kill the mosquitos, and reduce their length of life.